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Blog: Deep Neural Network for Structured Data - Heart Attack Prediction From Scratch

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Deep Neural Network for Structured Data - Heart Attack Prediction From Scratch

Preventive and predictive methods can help in managing the devastating effect of heart diseases. In this blog, we aim to show simple steps involved in building a predictive model using the Deep Neural Network method to predict a heart attack.


A detailed overview of Heart Attack Prediction has been discussed here

Read Data

In this tutorial, we are going to use the heart attack prediction dataset available on Kaggle.

In this heart attack prediction dataset, structured information - factual (e.g. age, height, gender, weight, etc), medical examination results (e.g. BP, Glucose, etc), and behavioral/subjective given by patient (e.g. smoking, taking alcohol, level of physical activity, etc) - is available.

import pandas as pd
cardio = pd.read_csv("cardio_train.csv", sep=";")

# Summary Statistics
cardio.describe().transpose()

Feature Engineering - Stage 1

A detailed exploratory data analysis has been done to understand data, find the distribution of each of the independent variables/ features, and perform bivariate analysis - relationship between label variable and each of the independent variables/features.

Here are some of the data treatments done and also the features to be created. After that, we create an additional list of features.

import numpy as np
# Age in Years
cardio['age_years'] = round(cardio['age']/365,0)
# Outlier Treatment: Height
cardio['height'] = np.where(cardio['height']>207,207,cardio['height'])


# Pressure - High: Category
def ap_hi (values):
    if values<=120:
        return 1
    elif 120<values<=200:
        return 2
    else:
        return 3
cardio['ap_hi_cat']=cardio.ap_hi.apply(lambda x: ap_hi(x) )
# Outlier Treatment: ap_hi
cardio['ap_hi'] = np.where(cardio['ap_hi']>200,201,cardio['ap_hi'])

# Pressure - Low: Category
def ap_lo (values):
    if values<=50:
        return 1
    elif 50<values<=120:
        return 2
    else:
        return 3    
cardio['ap_lo_cat']=cardio.ap_lo.apply(lambda x: ap_lo(x) )

# Capping
def capping(series, lowMax, highMin):
    if series <lowMax:
        return lowMax
    elif series>highMin:
        return highMin
    else:
        return series
    
cardio['ap_hi'] = cardio.ap_hi.apply(lambda x: capping(x,50,120) )
cardio['ap_lo'] = cardio.ap_lo.apply(lambda x: capping(x,50,120) ) 
# Scale up

# Pressure - Low: modulus
cardio['ap_lo_mod_10'] = np.where(cardio['ap_lo']%10==0,1,0)

# BMI Cal
cardio['bmi'] = np.round(cardio['weight']/((cardio['height']/100)*(cardio['height']/100)),0)

# Outlier Treatment: BMI
import numpy as np
cardio['bmi'] = np.where(cardio['bmi']>50,50,cardio['bmi'])

# Create multiple group using lamda function
def bmicat(values):
    if values <=18.5:
        return 1
    elif 18.5<values<=24.9:
        return 2
    elif 24.9<values<=29.9:
        return 3
    else:
        return 4
    
# BMI - Categories
cardio['bmi_cat'] = cardio.bmi.apply(lambda x: bmicat(x) ) 

# Pressures - difference and ratio
cardio['s_d_ratio'] = np.round(np.abs(np.min(cardio['ap_hi']))+1+cardio['ap_hi'],2)/(np.abs(np.min(cardio['ap_lo']))+1+cardio['ap_lo'])
cardio['s_d_diff'] = np.round(cardio['ap_hi']-cardio['ap_lo'],2)

# Capping Ratio and Difference
cardio['s_d_ratio'] = cardio.s_d_ratio.apply(lambda x: capping(x,1.2,1.5) )
cardio['s_d_diff'] = cardio.s_d_diff.apply(lambda x: capping(x,0,50) ) 

# EDA - Bivariate Analysis: Dummy Variables
cardio['age_above_55'] = np.where(cardio['age_years']>55,1,0)
cardio['s_d_diff_above_45'] = np.where(cardio['s_d_diff']>45,1,0)
cardio['ap_lo_above_85'] = np.where(cardio['ap_lo']>85,1,0)
cardio['ap_hi_above_125'] = np.where(cardio['ap_hi']>125,1,0)

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