Powerful Proc Tabulate Explained

In this blog, we will use PROC TABULATE , one of the most powerful PROCS for data summarization using SAS. For creating summary table of the information (similar to Pivot in Excel), we need to define Classification Variables, also called dimensions Measurement Variables, also called Facts Structure of the Output Summary Tables PROC FREQ, PROC ... Read more

Concatenating Datasets in SAS

Author: Mrinmoy Saikia Data preparation is one of the most significant steps in Data Science, Analytics or Reporting Projects. In this blog, we focus on learning - "Combining 2 or more SAS datasets Vertically". Combining SAS datasets vertically is also referred as Concatenating Datasets. Concatenating is combining 2 or more datasets one below another. From ... Read more

SAS Control Statements

In this blog, we will discuss some of the SAS control statements with examples. IF/WHERE Statement IF or WHERE statement is applied to select observations. WHERE condition is applied while reading observations from Input dataset where as IF condition is applied at Program Data Vector (PDV). Using the Where statement may improve the efficiency of ... Read more

Chi Square Test using SAS

A chi-square test is an statistical method to test association between two categorical variables (especially between nominal variables).  Type of Variables. Correlation Analysis: When both the variables are continuous, and it can be done using Pearson Correlation Coefficient.  Correlation Analysis. ANOVA: One variable is categorical and other variable is continuous. Finding how levels of categorical variable ... Read more

ANOVA using SAS and Example

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used for comparing means across multiple samples. Focus here is only 1-Way ANOVA and there are a few different ways of applying similar concepts to different scenarios. If number of samples or groups is one or two, we can use T Test (T Test using SAS). Using one categorical variables, ... Read more

Retain Statement - Explained with Examples

Author: Rameshwari, done SAS for Data Analytics Training course from DnI Institute SAS programs are made of statements and each statements end with semi comma -";" . One of the important statements in SAS is RETAIN statement. Why do we need Retain Statement? Important point about SAS program is that in majority of  cases SAS ... Read more

10 Most Commonly Used Character Functions in SAS

In this blog, we will discuss 10 most common text manipulation functions in SAS. These functions can be used for preparing data for text analytics or predictive model development. Length of String: LENGTH, LENGTHC and LENGTHN Change Case of String: LOWCASE, UPCASE and PROPCASE String Alignment: LEFT and RIGHT Remove or Trim Leading and Trailing Blanks: TRIM ... Read more

Analysing Count and Proportions - using PROC FREQ

Variables from Analysis perspective are categorical and continuous (details on Variables Types). For summarising categorical variables, counts and proportions are used.  SAS has PROC FREQ procedures to summarise categorical variables. FREQ - read as frequency of variable values. In this blog, we will explore some of the commonly used options and statements of PROC FREQ. ... Read more

Proc Sort - Options and Scenarios

In a number of SAS PROCs or Procedures, we may want to group the observations together. For example if we are using BY statement in PROC PRINT (All About PROC PRINT), SAS prints observations grouped by BY variable(s) values. When we are using Base SAS and have specified BY statement, the input dataset have to ... Read more


In this blog, we will discuss some of the commonly used options statements of PROC PRINT in SAS. Below are some of the common tasks which needs to be done and  how these can be achieved using PROC PRINT. Print a SAS dataset Print only a few variables of a SAS dataset (VAR statement) Print ... Read more

10 Data Manipulation Scenarios and SAS Codes

Scenarios 1-Creating multiple rows from a single row in the input SAS dataset: You have a pharma shop and each of the medicines has manufacturing date and expiry date for each batch of a medicine. From the input SAS dataset with one observation for a medicine to multiple observations for each of the valid date ... Read more

Predictive Modelling Technique - Logistic Regression - Interpret Output - Part 2

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD AND ODDS RATIO Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameters in logistic regression are estimated using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) functions.  The significance of individual exploratory variable parameters is assessed using Wald Chi Square test. Parameter:  Intercept and exploratory variables used in a logistic model, the weight of these are estimated using MLE DF: ... Read more

Predictive Modelling Technique - Logistic Regression - Interpret Output

Originally published on RamG Data Analytics & Insights (www.ramganalytics.com) In the previous blog, we  elaborated on Why and How to learn Predictive Modelling? One of the commonly used statistical techniques is Logistic Regression.  In this blog focus is to understand logistic regression out. We are using SAS for executing logistics regression but similar results & ... Read more

Interview Process - Evaluating Analytical Skills

In the previous blog, we have shared the list of questions which were asked for evaluating communication, confidence, and technical skills (SAS). In the next round, main expectation was to check the candidate for analytics skills. After the interviewers were comfortable with the technical skills (e.g. SAS in this case), in this round questions were asked ... Read more

Analytics Interview Process and Questions: Real Case

Typically an analytics job interview process involves multiple stages or rounds. In each of these stages, various skills are evaluated. Some of the key skills required for Analytics Professional or Data Scientist roles are Communication & Leadership Skills Functional and Business Domain Knowledge Logical and Analytical Skills Technical Skills - Machine Learning & Statistical Techniques ... Read more

SAS PROC SORT - New Options

Author: Debosmita Das   SAS PROC SORT is one of the commonly used procedure. Basic functionality of the procedure are discussed here. In this previous blog are How to sort a SAS dataset? - Use PROC SORT How to sort in Descending order? - using descending option before a variable name in BY statement How ... Read more

SAS Array and Do Loop – Creating derived variables for Predictive Model Building

In Predictive model development, a number of derived variables are created based on base variable. For example, based on monthly spend, average for combination of the months (e.g. average for last 2, 3 months etc), ratio variables (ration of last month to last 3 months). ARRAY and DO LOOP are quite helpful in creating the ... Read more

Useful SAS functions for Zip Code and Geo Distance

 Author: Prateek Paatni Plotting information on the map is one of the powerful visualization. Plotting on a map require latitude and longitude information of a place. For country level longitude and latitude information, one can refer a compiled country level information on the CountryISOCode,latitude and longitude One can refer Country level Heatmap which is plotted ... Read more